Praise be to God- Exegesis of Ephesians 1:1-10

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The New Testament letter of Ephesians is one of the profound books with foundational teaching for the body of Christ. The letter addresses both theological and practical themes that remain relevant to the contemporary church. In chapter one to chapter four, the author deals with theological truths needed by the church so that believers in Christ “will no longer be infants, tossed back and forth by waves, and blown here and there by every wind of teaching and by the cunning and craftiness of men in their deceitful scheming” (Eph. 4:14). The next section, chapter four to six, deals with ethical implications of the teachings presented in the preceding chapters to the inclusive Christian community that comprised of both Jews and Gentiles.

The theological section of the letter primarily addresses soteriological, Christological, ecclesiological and ethical/practical concern in day-day life of a Christian. The author expounds on the doctrine of salvation in chapter one by highlighting key terms like predestination, adoption, and redemption. In chapter two he deals with the doctrine of the church and addresses critical issues such as unity and universality of Christ.

The first part of chapter one (1:1-14) begins with a hymn of praise to God for the spiritual blessing he has bestowed to all those in Christ. The rest of the chapter (1:15-23) is Paul’s passionate prayer for the saints at Ephesus. The believers in this church were already known for their faith and love and Paul further prays spiritual blessings upon them. This piece presents a verse by verse exegesis of Ephesians 1:1-10 with a focus on the Pauline metaphor υἱοθεσία (adoption as sons) in Ephesians 1:5. The ethical and ecclesiological implications will also be explored. We will first begin by looking at the background information of this letter.

Authorship

Traditionally, the authorship of Ephesians has been attributed to Apostle Paul. This view is strongly attested by the Church Fathers like Irenaeus of Lyons, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian. Also, references to Ephesians as a letter of Paul by Ignatus of Antioch as Pauline before his martyrdom in A.D. 115; Bishop Polycarp of Smyrna, as well as the authors of the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas strengthens the claim of Pauline authorship.[1] Further, internal evidence support Pauline authorship. The author identifies himself as Paul, an Apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God (1:1); we also know from the letter that he was in prison because of the gospel (3:1, 4:1). The author makes clear his calling- he is a servant of the gospel to the Gentiles (3:1-9). This description fits Apostle Paul who in many instances pointed out that his calling was primarily to the Gentiles (Gal. 2:7).

But even with above textual attestation, Pauline authorship of Ephesians is still disputed by some scholars today. The debate revolves around words, phrases and stylistic features that are deemed as non-Pauline. These critics cite significant differences between Pauline letters and Ephesians to support their claims. They observe that unusually the letter to Ephesians do not have an introduction thanksgiving and mention of ministry companions, something that is common among Pauline letters that are undisputed.[2]Considering these objections, there are still good grounds to uphold the traditional view that Paul is the author of the letter to Ephesians.

Recipients

The recipients of the letter are identified as believes, in Christ, who are in Ephesus (1:1). (more comments in verse 1 on the exegesis section concerning the reservations critics have concerning the phrase, ‘In Ephesus’). The title also depict that the letter was written to Ephesians. But this is also debated because the title may have been added at a later date, perhaps second century, by copyist or scribes in seeing the need of a title for his letter.[3] Therefore the title “Ephesians” is not a guarantee that the recipients were Ephesians.

The issue of determining recipients of the letter has also raised more problems that relate to the question of authorship. From the book of Acts we know that Paul spent about three years in Ephesus doing ministry (Acts 18:19-21; 19:1-20; 20:31). Together with other ministry companions they established the church in Ephesus. One of the basic assumptions one can make is that within the period of three years Paul must have become well acquainted with the believers in this church and developed intimate relationships with the congregants. But critics have pointed out from the text that the author of Ephesians seems to be unaware of his recipients. For instance, in Ephesians 1:15; 3:2-3; 4:21, the author and recipients do not know each other personally. At least they have heard of one another and are dependent on what is told or written of them. The second objection is that nothing is made specific in terms of conditions or events in the city or church as (as Paul would do in other letters).[4] The author addresses the universal church without laying an emphasis on specifics of this church or city.

But putting all the above views into consideration, the case for Ephesians as the addressees of Paul holds more evidence. Ephesus was a big city and Paul might have written to one of the churches he founded in his three-year period in this great Asia Minor city. The fact that the letter is not personal could be because Paul expected the letter to be circulated among the churches in Ephesus.

Date

The dating of Ephesians depends on one’s inclinations on the authorship and recipients. A choice of Pauline authorship will place the dating of this letter during the period of Paul’s imprisonment in Rome (3:1; 4:1) which is around A.D 60-61. This is the period when other Prison Epistles were written by Paul. Those who dispute Pauline authorship approximate the date to be between A.D 70 and 90, a period which the Pauline letters are thought to have been collected.[5]Based on my inclination toward Pauline authorship, I would favor a date in the early 60s; that is, toward the end of Paul’s life.

In the following section we will look at the exegesis of Ephesians 1:1-10 and then in another blog focus on the huiothesia metaphor in Ephesians 1:5. In the exegesis part, I will give the Greek text (UBS 4th Edition) and offer my translation then a discussion of exegetical issues. The motivations to explore the Pauline metaphor is based on my research interests on the role of υἱοθεσία in understanding Paul’s theology.

Verse by Verse Exegesis of Ephesians 1:1-10

Greek text, verse 1: Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ τοῖς ἁγίοις τοῖς οὖσιν [ἐν Ἐφέσῳ] καὶ πιστοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ·

Translation: Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus, by the will of God to the saints who are in Ephesus and to the faithful in Christ.

The letter to Ephesians begins with the recognition of the author in verse 1 as Παῦλος. He identifies himself as being ἀπόστολος[6]Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ[7], an apostle of Jesus Christ. His apostleship was received διὰ θελήματος[8]θεοῦ[9] (through the will of God). Paul’s apologetic claim as being an apostle was necessary perhaps because he was not among the twelve disciples of Jesus who lived and witnessed the ministry of Christ including his death, resurrection, and ascension. But he now clarifies his apostolic claim; it was not by his will/choice but by God’s will.

The recipients of the letter are referred to as τοῖς ἁγίοις (the saints/holy) and πιστοῖς[10] (faithful/believing ones). Believers have been granted this status because of their union with Christ; they are said to be ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ,[11]in Christ Jesus. It should be remembered that this was a mixed congregation of both Jews and Gentiles, poor and rich; but because of their faith in Christ, they have now been united in Christ as one despite their cultural, ethnic or religious backgrounds. Their newfound status was not based on their rich religious backgrounds (Jews) or anything in their pagan background (of the Gentiles); what counted was being in Christ. Therefore it is true that “no man is a saint by personal effort; sainthood comes by the consecrating act of God. However, the soul that is ‘set apart’ apart’ by God’s grace has been made ‘holy’ because he has knowingly and willingly surrendered his life to God.”[12]Surprisingly, Paul also referred to believers in the church of Corinth with their imperfections as “sanctified” (1Cor. 1:2).

The geographical location where the recipients of the letter were situated is indicated  as ἐν Ἐφέσῳ; but it is indicated in parentheses because this phrase is omitted in some manuscripts. Barth comments,

“These words are missing in the olderst available Greek MS of Ephesians, also in the original script of codices Vaticanus and Sinaiticus {Papyrus 46 and the fourth-century codices Vaticanus (B) and Sinaiticus (S) before the later was corrected}, and in the Minuscule 1739 which appears to have been copied from an early text. The Parenthesized words were also absent from the texts used by Marcion, Tertullian, Origen, and Gregory the Great. But the Syriac and Latin versions (that go back to second century) and the vast majority of extant Greek MSS do contain them.[13]

Therefore there are evidence in either side of the argument but there is more plausible proof that the phrase ‘in Ephesus’ was authentic. As noted, verse one highlights the author and his claim to apostleship as being through the will of God, the recipients and their relationship with Christ and the place the recipients live in.

Greek Text, verse 2: χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.

 Translation: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Apostle Paul then passes his greetings to his addressees (ὑμῖν[14]) by wishing them χάρις and εἰρήνη[15]that is ἀπὸ[16]θεοῦ πατρὸς[17]ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ[18]Χριστοῦ[19](from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. Paul uses the personal pronoun ‘our’ (ἡμῶν) to express the fact that all those “in Christ” share the same Father. There are other biblical references where God is referred to as Father (2 Sam. 7:14; Jer. 31:9; Hos. 1:10, 11:1; Jn. 17; 2 Cor 6:18). Fatherhood of God encompasses all those in Christ; that is, irrespective of their backgrounds. In the greetings he uses the Greek χάρις and the Jewish εἰρήνη or (Hebrew-shallom). The two words (grace and peace) are clarified,

“Grace encompasses all the providential acts of God on behalf of undeserving men to initiate and to sustain a saving relationship with Him. Peace, the twin gift, is a state of deep satisfaction and settledness. It is divinely created in the hearts and minds of men who have responded to to the redemptive overtures of God through His Son, Christ Jesus.[20]

It is worth noting that the greeting is a common formula in his writings (Rom. 1:7; 1 Cor. 1:3; Col. 1:2; 1 Tim. 1:2). This verse marks the end of the introductory part of his letter.

Greek Text, verse 3: Εὐλογητὸς ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ εὐλογήσας ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ εὐλογίᾳ πνευματικῇ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις ἐν Χριστῷ.

Translation: Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ.

Paul now begins his letter ascribing praise/blessing to God and Father of “our Lord Jesus Christ,” Εὐλογητὸς ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ[21] τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.[22] The adjective Εὐλογητὸς can be rendered “praised” or “worthy of praise.” The phrase ὁ εὐλογήσας[23] ἡμᾶς[24] refers to the reason why God, the Father our Lord should be praised/blessed. He should be praised because he has blessed the faithful ἐν πάσῃ εὐλογίᾳ πνευματικῇ.[25] Believers in Christ have been given all spiritual blessings ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις[26]ἐν Χριστῷ[27](in the heavenly places in Christ). Here is the logic: the recipients would have asked why they should praise God the Father, and Paul’s answer would be- because he has blessed the saints with every spiritual blessing. Then they might have further asked, if that is the case then where are those blessings and in what way are we blessed; Paul would also respond by saying the blessings God has given them are spiritual and are in the heavenly places (where Christ is seated). He further adds that those blessings to them are specifically in reference to their union with Christ (because they are in Christ).

Greek Text: 4 καθὼς ἐξελέξατο ἡμᾶς ἐν αὐτῷ πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἁγίους καὶ ἀμώμους κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ.

Translation of verse 4 : just as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless before him in love.

In the same manner believers in Christ have been blessed with every spiritual blessing in heavenly places in Christ (verse 3), they have also been ἐξελέξατο[28] (chosen) in him, ἐν αὐτῷ.[29] The phrase πρὸ[30] καταβολῆ[31] κόσμου[32] refers to the time before creation of the world. It looks at the time-past when God the Father began his salvific work to those that he chose. Believers at Ephesus will certainly be amazed at this lofty knowledge; and at the same time be encouraged by this revelation in knowing that their present experience in Christ did not begin in the present or recent past but in the eternity past.

But apostle Paul is also quick to add that this act of God was for a purpose. The purpose is given in the second part of the verse: εἶναι[33] ἡμᾶς ἁγίους[34] καὶ ἀμώμους[35] κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ,[36] (to be holy and blameless before him in love). Believers in Christ were blessed and chosen by God the Father so that they can be holy and blameless before Him. It is worth nothing that in verse 1 he had referred them as “saints and faithful”; this was a status they achieved because of their union with Christ. But in this verse, he points out that their calling was (continually) to be holy and blameless. Their heavenly Father who has blessed them with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ is holy and so they should be holy. Their status which was achieved by their union with Christ is also a calling to be continually cultivated. Just as their choosing was achieved before the foundations of the world they still needed to actualize it by living out holy and blameless lives. Therefore God’s work was manifest in their lives by His spiritual blessings and in choosing them to be holy and blameless.

Greek Text, verse 5: προορίσας ἡμᾶς εἰς υἱοθεσίαν διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς αὐτόν, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ.

Translation: He predestined us into adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will.

Paul has emphatically revealed that God the Father has blessed the saints in Christ with every spiritual blessing and chosen them to be holy and blameless in his sight. But He has even done more! He has  προορίσας ἡμᾶς, predestined the believing ones in Christ. God has determined in advance believers εἰς υἱοθεσίαν[37] διὰ Ἰησοῦ[38] Χριστοῦ[39] εἰς αὐτόν.[40] The work of predestination leads to a newfound status for believers: the status of being a son, God’s son. And this is κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν[41] τοῦ θελήματος[42] αὐτοῦ.[43] Predestination of believers achieves them the status of sonship through Jesus, which is accomplished according to the good pleasure of God’s will/decision.

The family metaphor, υἱοθεσία, deserves careful consideration because Paul in this context already used other complementary terminologies for example referring to God as Father. Later in the epistle he also brings up the idea of inheritance as a legal implication of his being a son (Eph. 1:14; and in other epistles where υἱοθεσία is used, (Rom. 8:17; Gal. 4:1-5). In the upcoming blog, I will dig deeper into the Old Testament and the Graeco-Roman context explore the origin and the use of this metaphor. But more importantly to ascertain what background informed his Paul’s use of the term. But we will close this verse by saying, Paul wants believers in Christ to know that they are rich because of the every spiritual blessing given them in Christ. Also, they were chosen in God before the foundation of the world to be holy and blameless; and in this verse, believers are reminded that they now have a status of a son; that is, by God’s predestination through Christ. The sonship status into God’s family makes both Jews and Gentiles equal and co-heirs with Christ.

Greek Text, verse 6: εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ ἧς ἐχαρίτωσεν ἡμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ.

Translation: to the praise of the glory of his grace, which he has freely given us in the One he loves.

In verse 6, Paul expresses praise to God εἰς ἔπαινον[44] for what he has accomplished for believers through Christ in accordance to the pleasure of His good will. The phrase δόξης[45] τῆς χάριτος[46] αὐτοῦ (of the glory of his grace) expounds on the greatness of the grace of God in accomplishing all that has been described in verse 3-5. God has freely given, ἐχαρίτωσεν,[47] believers his grace; in other words, in accordance with his pleasure and will. I have translated the phrase ἐν τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ as ‘in the One he loves’; other Bible translations have: ‘in the beloved’ (KJV), ‘in the One he loves’ (NIV), and ‘in the Beloved’ (NAS). The Son whom God the Father loves is Jesus Christ (Matt. 3:17; Col. 1:13). The verb ἠγαπημένῳ (perfect, passive, participle, masculine, singular) can be taken as a substantival participle; and the one referred to in this context is Christ. It is in Christ that God the Father has liberally manifested the splendor of his grace.

Greek text, verse 7: ἐν ᾧ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν παραπτωμάτων, κατὰ τὸ πλοῦτος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ,

Translation: In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace.

Verse 7 explicitly highlights the role of Jesus in God’s overall plan of salvation. According to verse 3 every spiritual blessing was given to believers in Christ. In verse 5, adoption as sons was accomplished through Jesus Christ. In verse 6, God has freely given his grace in the One he loves. In whom (ἐν ᾧ- referring to Christ, the One God loves), ἔχομεν[48] τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν[49] διὰ[50] τοῦ αἵματος[51] αὐτοῦ.[52] The blood of Jesus brings about redemption of humanity. The second part of the verse elaborates further on redemption. The redemption here refers to τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν παραπτωμάτων[53] (the forgiveness of sins) that comes through τὸ πλοῦτος[54] τῆς χάριτος[55] αὐτοῦ.[56] The work of Jesus is complementary to the work of God the Father. In Christ there is redemption, the forgiveness of sins which is necessary to the life of the believer because the purpose of God the Father from the beginning was that those in Christ be holy and blameless (verse 4).

Greek text, verse 8-9: ἧς ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει. 9 γνωρίσας ἡμῖν τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν αὐτοῦ ἣν προέθετο ἐν αὐτῷ

Translation: 8.which he lavished on us. With all wisdom and understanding. 9. he made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which he purposed in Him (Christ).

In Verse 8, Paul states that the riches of God’s grace has been ἐπερίσσευσεν[57] (lavished) on believers. In possession of πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει[58] (all wisdom and understanding), Jesus made known to us they mystery of the will of God the Father- γνωρίσας[59] ἡμῖν τὸ μυστήριον[60] τοῦ θελήματος[61] αὐτοῦ.[62] And that is according to good pleasure of God the Father which he purposed in Him (Christ), κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν[63] αὐτοῦ[64] ἣν προέθετο[65] ἐν αὐτῷ.[66] Therefore Christ came to reveal the mystery of the will of God the Father; he had no independent task from the Father in relation to salvation. The work of each Person of the Trinity does not contradict each other or independent of each other but complementary to each other.

Greek Text, verse 10: εἰς οἰκονομίαν τοῦ πληρώματος τῶν καιρῶν, ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι τὰ πάντα ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ, τὰ ἐπὶ τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· ἐν αὐτῷ.

Translation: for administration at the fullness of time, summing up all things in Christ, the things in the heaven and things on earth, in him.

In verse 10, the phrase εἰς οἰκονομίαν is an accusative of termination with purpose as the focus. The revelation of the mystery of God was to be effective in its administration at the fullness of time τοῦ πληρώματος[67] τῶν καιρῶν.[68] And the fullness of time will bring about the ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι[69] τὰ πάντα[70] ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ[71] (summing up all things in Christ). That will involve τὰ ἐπὶ τοῖς οὐρανοῖς[72] καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς[73] ἐν αὐτῷ.[74] This shows the purpose of making know the mystery of His will, bringing everything under one head-Christ. Keener notes,

“It was common Jewish belief that history was moving through many stages to climax, when everything would be put under God’s rule. Some philosophers argued that the whole universe was permeated by God and would be absorbed back into him. Like the Jewish writers who adapted the language of such philosophers, Paul believes the history moves toward a climax of subordination to God, not absorption into him.”[75]

Therefore at the fullness of time, all things in heaven and on earth will be put under Christ. At the summation of all things, every knee will bow down and every tongue confess his lordship (Phil. 2:10,11). All that God began doing in the eternity past, (blessing with all spiritual blessings, choosing us for holiness, predestining us to adoption as sons), will completely and finally be brought to an end at the fullness of time when all things in heaven and on earth will be placed under his authority. The END.

References (footnotes):

[1] R. E. Howard et.al. “Galatians through Philemon,” In Beacon Bible Commentary,” Eds. A.F. Harper et al. Vol. IX. 19-125. (Kansas Missouri: Beacon Hill press, 1965),129.

[2] D. A. Carson, and Douglas J. Moo. An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 2005), 482-483.

[3] Howard et.al., Galatians through Philemon, 131.

[4] Markus Barth. “Ephesians 1-3: New Translation with Introduction and Commentary.” In The Anchor Bible. (Garden City, New York: Doubleday& Company, 1974), 10.

[5] Carson,and Moo, An Introduction to the New Testament, 487.

[6] Nominative subject.

[7] It can be qualitative genitive to emphasize the fact that he is an apostle of Christ Jesus; he is not a witness according to people or himself (as self-proclaimed apostle). It can also be construed as a source Genitive- to emphasize the fact that his apostleship originates from Christ.

[8] This can be taken as genitive of means. The will of God is the means in which he received his apostleship.

[9] This can be understood best as a qualitative genitive.

[10] Dative of indirect object.

[11] Dative of association. They are referred to as holy and faithful not because of their merit but because of their association with Christ (which has brought a union between the two parties.

[12] Howard et.al., Galatians through Philemon, 140.

[13] Barth, Ephesians 1-3, 67.

[14] Dative of indirect object.

[15] Nominative subjects.

[16] Genitive of source.

[17] Epexegetical genitive- explaining further on the noun θεοῦ.

[18] Source genitive- making God/Jesus Christ as the source of grace and peace. It can also be understood as qualitative genitive to bring the idea that he wishes them God’s grace and peace as opposes to grace and peace that men can offer.

[19] Epexegetical genitive- further explaining Ἰησοῦ.

[20] Howard et.al., Galatians through Philemon, 131.

[21] Granville Sharp rule applies here; the two nouns of the same case ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ are connected by καὶ, the first noun has an article and the scond do not. Therefore πατὴρ referes to the same person (ὁ θεὸς)

[22] Epexegetical genitive explaining further concerning the nominative subject (identified as God and Father).

[23] Adjectival participle (in this case substantival). As Resultative aorist emphasis is put on the conclusion of the action.

[24] This personal pronoun refers to saints and faithful ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ (according to verse 1).

[25] Dative of reference (blessings in reference to that which is spiritual).

[26] I have rendered it here as a dative of place (hence- heavenly places). It could also be taken as a dative of sphere to bring the idea of blessings- in the heavenly realm.

[27] Dative of reference (in reference to Christ).

[28] Inceptive aorist-the focus is at the beginning of choosing.

[29] Dative of reference- to mean, chosen in reference to Him/God.

[30] Genitive of time.

[31] Subjective genitive.

[32] Objective genitive.

[33] Infinitive of purpose.

[34] Predicate accusative.

[35] Predicate accusative.

[36] Dative of reference or manner or reference can fit here-In reference to his love or in the manner of his love.

[37] Accusative of termination with focus on status. Predestination leads to a God-given status of being a son.

[38] Genitive of agency. Jesus Christ is the agent that makes adoption as son possible.

[39] Epexegetical genitive.

[40] Accusative of termination with focus on purpose.

[41] Accusative of manner.

[42] Objective Genitive.

[43] Subjective genitive.

[44] Accusative of termination with the purpose as focus.

[45] Objective genitive.

[46] Subjective genitive.

[47] Constative aorist.

[48] Static present- with focus on the state of things.

[49] Direct object accusative.

[50] Genitive of means.

[51] Objective genitive.

[52] Subjective Genitive.

[53] Epexegetical genitive.

[54] Accusative absolute.

[55] Objective genitive.

[56] Subjective genitive.

[57] Dramatic aorist.

[58] Dative of cause.

[59] Complementary participle.

[60] Accusative absolute.

[61] Objective genitive.

[62] Subjective genitive

[63] Adverbial accusative with manner as focus.

[64] Genitive of possession.

[65] Inceptive aorist.

[66] Dative of indirect object

[67] This can be taken as objective genitive or genitive of measure.

[68] This can be taken as subjective genitive or Genitive of time.

[69] Subject infinitive.

[70] Adverbial accusative with measure as focus.

[71] Dative of indirect object.

[72] Dative of place.

[73] Genitive of place.

[74] Dative of indirect object.

[75] Craig S. Keener. The IVP Bible Background Commentary. (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1993) 542.

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